What is the most direct, effective and economical means to achieve "carbon peak and carbon neutrality"-energy saving, energy saving!
Xie Kechang, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, recently pointed out in his speech that the order of carbon emission reduction should be: energy saving and efficiency improvement, reduction of carbon emission intensity, increase of low-carbon energy and reduction of high-carbon energy, strengthening of natural carbon sinks through afforestation, and carbon dioxide capture. Collection, storage and utilization (CCUS).
The advanced deployment of technologies such as high-efficiency CCUS and carbon dioxide to olefins is difficult and expensive. At this stage, the fundamental problems cannot be solved and cannot be solved.
Bai Ling, a researcher at the Energy Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Macroeconomics, pointed out that energy conservation is the most important way to achieve a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. The per capita energy consumption in developed countries has reached its peak and has gradually decreased through strengthening energy conservation.
Academician Xie Kechang pointed out that my country is still facing the reality of low energy utilization efficiency, and my country's energy consumption per unit of GDP is 1.4-1.5 times the world average. "If it can reach the world average, 1.3 billion tons of standard coal can be used annually, and 3.4 billion tons of carbon dioxide can be reduced, accounting for about 1/3 of the total carbon emissions in 2020. Therefore, compared with expanding the use of carbon dioxide resources, energy saving will be improved. Efficiency is the first priority for achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality."
Energy saving is the most important way to achieve a substantial reduction in carbon dioxide emissions
Energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency are the most important ways for the energy system to achieve large-scale emission reductions of carbon dioxide before 2050. International Energy Agency analysis pointed out that if global greenhouse gas emissions fall from the current 33 billion tons to about 10 billion tons in 2050, energy conservation and energy efficiency improvements will contribute 37% to global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, and the development of renewable energy The contribution is 32%, fuel substitution contributes 8%, the development of nuclear power contributes 3%, CCUS technology contributes 9%, and the remaining 12% contribution is met by other technologies. It can be seen that before 2050, energy saving and energy efficiency improvement are regarded as the most important ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the global energy system.
Per capita energy consumption in developed countries has reached its peak, and has gradually declined through energy conservation efforts.
The development history of human society has shown that as a country’s economy continues to develop, its per capita energy consumption has gradually increased. After industrialization and urbanization are basically completed, per capita energy consumption will reach saturation, and the saturation period can last for 20, 30, or even 20 years. Longer. Historically, the per capita energy consumption in the United States, Canada and other countries was as high as 11-12 tce (tons of standard coal), and countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan also reached at least about 6 tce.
It is worth noting that since the 1990s, developed countries have realized that only by reducing energy consumption can carbon dioxide emissions be reduced, while at the same time creating conditions for accelerating the replacement of fossil energy. The United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan and other developed countries have increased their emphasis on energy conservation and energy efficiency, and have taken measures to reduce their own energy consumption. After nearly 20 years of hard work, per capita energy consumption in the United States has dropped from 11.1 tce in 2000 to 9.8 tce in 2019; Germany has dropped from 6.1 tce in 2000 to 5.4 tce in 2019; and per capita energy consumption in the UK has dropped from 2000 Japan’s 5.6tce dropped to 4.0tce in 2019; Japan dropped from 5.8tce in 2000 to 5.0tce in 2019. The decline in per capita energy consumption and total domestic energy consumption has made important contributions to reducing carbon dioxide emissions in these countries.
Controlling the growth of energy consumption while developing the economy is the biggest challenge facing my country in reducing carbon dioxide emissions
my country's energy consumption is still on the upward path. The per capita energy consumption in 2019 was 3.4 tce, which is gradually approaching the current per capita energy consumption levels of the United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany.
To achieve "carbon neutrality" before 2060, it means that there is not enough time for my country to repeat the "three-step" process of rapid growth in per capita energy consumption in developed countries, then saturation for a long time, and finally gradual decline. my country’s modernization of the country must always control per capita energy consumption at a low level, and achieve the grand goal of building a modern country by 2035 and a modern power by 2050 with lower energy consumption.
Energy saving is so important, how do we do energy saving
Implement the new development concept and deeply integrate energy conservation and efficiency into the new journey of building a modern country
Energy-saving and efficiency-enhancing is not a technical measure, but a major task involving development concepts, development paths, production methods, and lifestyles. It needs to be strengthened and persisted throughout the entire process and in all fields. Persistent promotion of energy conservation and efficiency is not only a major social project, but also an arduous system project.
Starting from the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, it is necessary to use new development concepts as guidance, promote economic restructuring, substantially increase energy efficiency standards, accelerate energy price tax reform, and promote my country to embark on a high-energy efficiency, low energy consumption, and "carbon-neutral" policy. "The new modern development path.
Guided by the new development concept, take energy conservation and efficiency enhancement as an important evaluation criterion for high-quality development
The modernization of our country must be guided by the new development concept of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing, always adhere to the basic national policy of resource conservation, adhere to the people-oriented development goal, and continue to promote high-quality development.
In the construction of a new development pattern with the domestic big cycle as the main body and the mutual promotion of the international and domestic dual cycles, it is necessary to consider whether it is economical and efficient and whether it is conducive to the realization of the "carbon neutral" goal as an important evaluation indicator and entry threshold to promote energy Resource allocation is more reasonable, energy utilization efficiency is greatly improved, and quality, efficiency, and power changes are effectively promoted. Through the establishment of a long-term mechanism for energy conservation and energy efficiency, while the economy continues to grow, the level of energy efficiency will be further improved, and the difficulty of achieving the peak of 2030 and the goal of "carbon neutrality" by 2060 will be reduced.
Optimize economic structure and industrial structure, and continue to tap structural energy-saving space
Industrial structure is an important starting point for energy conservation and energy efficiency improvement. Energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency should be further brought into play to accelerate the adjustment of my country's economic structure, industrial structure, and energy structure, so as to gradually "decouple" economic development and energy consumption growth.
Comparing the history of changes in the three industrial structures of the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany, we can find that my country’s primary industry still has 6% room for decline, industry has at least 3% room for decline, and service industry has at least 10% room for increase. space. Generally speaking, the energy consumption per unit of GDP in the service industry is much lower than that of the secondary industry. The increase in the proportion of the service industry is not only an objective law of economic development, but also the general trend of my country’s economic development, and it is also conducive to achieving energy conservation and low carbon in my country. The goal.
In addition to the three industrial structural adjustments, industrial internal structural adjustments have made greater contributions to energy conservation and efficiency. It is necessary to comply with the law of market demand adjustment, deepen the supply-side structural reform, increase the reduction and replacement ratio of high energy-consuming industries such as steel and cement, and incorporate high energy efficiency and low carbon emissions into the threshold for capacity reduction and replacement. Provinces should be encouraged to adapt measures to local conditions, establish industrial access lists, list new projects as encouraged, restricted, and prohibited, and promote new fixed asset investment to match energy consumption intensity reduction targets and long-term "carbon neutral" targets. The development of strategic emerging industries such as the new generation of information technology, new energy, new energy vehicles, energy conservation and environmental protection should be accelerated, so that the industry and the internal structure of various industries will be transformed in the direction of high added value and low energy consumption.
In addition, industries targeting the international market have increased my country's energy consumption and carbon emissions burden to a certain extent, and plans must be made in advance in conjunction with the long-term "carbon neutral" target.
For key areas with strong lock-in effects, ultra-conventional measures are adopted to greatly increase energy efficiency access standards
In the past ten years, my country has been in the stage of urbanization, with more than 4 billion square meters of newly completed construction area each year. There are only less than 40 years left before the vision of "carbon neutrality" by 2060. If these newly built houses and infrastructure do not adopt the world's most advanced energy-saving technologies, they will need to be transformed or even demolished and reconstructed in the next 40 years. "Technology The problem of "lock-in" is outstanding.
The key energy-using fields that have strong lock-in effects on residential buildings, public buildings, and energy infrastructure, with high investment and large impact, can no longer continue the traditional way of "following" as the mainstay and slow iteration of market-driven technology. It is necessary to strengthen government leadership, promptly formulate energy efficiency standards that match the goal of "carbon neutrality", greatly increase energy efficiency access requirements, and make the energy efficiency level of newly built buildings and infrastructure "running" with developed countries as early as possible, or even " Leading the way".
Promote new energy-saving technologies, new models, and new business formats, and tap energy-saving potential across sectors and industries
Innovation is the fundamental driving force for energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency. In recent years, the Chinese government has continued to release new energy-saving technologies to promote customers to understand and use new technologies. Facing the goal of “carbon neutrality”, the leading role of technological innovation should be further strengthened, new energy-saving technologies, new materials, and new design ideas should be explored, and the promotion of new energy-saving technologies, new models, and new business formats should be accelerated, so as to provide more for deepening the energy-saving potential of the industry s solution.
In addition to tapping into the energy-saving potential within the industry, cross-industry resource integration is the "blue ocean" for energy-saving and efficiency-increasing. In recent years, my country’s industrial enterprises have left the city and entered the park to gather. By integrating the heat, electricity, water, and gas needs of the enterprises entering the park, they have concentrated on planning and building heat, natural gas and power infrastructure, and realized multi-energy complementation and intelligent management and control. , The energy consumption of the park can be reduced by 15% to 20%, and the energy consumption and pollutant treatment costs of enterprises will also be significantly reduced. It is necessary to further strengthen the utilization of waste heat in industrial parks, park energy-saving transformation and comprehensive energy services, remove the institutional barriers of resource integration, and tap the energy-saving potential of cross-sectoral, cross-industry, and cross-energy varieties.
Improve energy market signals and promote internalization of external costs
Market signals are the endogenous driving force for energy conservation under market economy conditions and an important "baton" for mobilizing energy conservation and carbon reduction in the whole society.
Therefore, energy price reform should be accelerated to make energy prices better reflect market supply and demand, the scarcity of energy resources and the loss of the ecological environment, especially the impact of carbon emissions. It is necessary to study effective ways to use taxation to promote carbon emission reduction, and explore feasible methods such as raising fossil energy resource taxes or levying carbon taxes. During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, we should strive to initially incorporate the "carbon dioxide emissions impact" into the energy market signal system, so that market forces can play a greater role in the process of my country's "carbon peak" and "carbon neutrality".